Irregular Verbs

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One difficult issue in using the past and perfect tenses is irregular verbs. Most irregular verbs do not use the –ed ending for the past tense or the past participle. The past tense and past participle forms of these verbs are extremely difficult to predict, so we must memorize them. Luckily, there are fewer than 200 actively used irregular verbs in the English language. Some of them are below.

Base Form Simple Past Past Participle
abide abode abode
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
beget begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bent bent bent
beseech besought besought
bet bet bet
bid bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
forswear forswore forsworn
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang (hang a picture) hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knit knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leap leapt leapt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mistake mistook mistaken
overcome overcame overcome
overtake overtook overtaken
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rend rent rent
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strew strewed strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat sweat
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood
undo undid undone
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken (or waked)
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

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